2004 indian ocean earthquake and destructive
No tsunami warning systems in the Indian Ocean exist to detect tsunamis or to warn the general populace living around the ocean.
The quake originated in a so-called megathrust fault, where heavy oceanic plates subduct beneath lighter continental plates. This quickly elevated the height and increased the speed of waves, destroying the nearby Indonesian town of Lhoknga.
The tsunami effects were studied in an effort to develop techniques to improve the identification of paleotsunami deposits in the geologic record. Because of the distances involved, the tsunami took anywhere from fifteen minutes to seven hours for Somalia to reach the various coastlines.
The traditional construction that had resisted shaking damage could not resist the tsunami forces and most were obliterated. Following the tsunami ingovernments, researchers and activists demanded that an adequate monitoring system be put in place in the Indian Ocean.
2004 tsunami death toll
None of the tanks was anchored to its foundations, and the three that were swept away by tsunami waves were only partially full. The force of the water and the debris created treacherous, fast-moving currents. Interviews with the local people and fishermen revealed that about 10—15 minutes after the earthquake, the sea dramatically receded and exposed coral reefs. The earliest, lower amplitude, signal represents the compressional P wave, which takes about 22 minutes to reach the other side of the planet the antipode; in this case near Ecuador. Following the tsunami in , governments, researchers and activists demanded that an adequate monitoring system be put in place in the Indian Ocean. Many lost their livelihoods when their shops, homes, fishing gear and other belongings were destroyed. This tsunami is one of the best documented because of the rise of smartphones and social media. Each of these megathrust earthquakes also spawned tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. Ichinose, J. Rather than delivering one violent jolt, the quake lasted an unrelenting 10 minutes, releasing as much pent-up power as several thousand atomic bombs. Our observations on many different shorelines around the Indian Ocean went a long way in helping us to understand the variability of deposits from a single event in multiple coastal settings. The tsunami also reached Antarctica , where tidal gauges at Japan's Showa Base recorded oscillations of up to a meter, with disturbances lasting a couple of days. Credit: NASA.
Trees and appliances in the background were washed from the island to the reefs. Secondly, detection requires a network of sensors to detect it. Measurements from those satellites may prove invaluable for the understanding of the earthquake and tsunami.
Receding waters after the second tsunami, A. By Allison Mills On Dec.
2004 indian ocean earthquake and destructive
Smaller tsunamis continued to occur for the rest of the day. Coastal villages were destroyed by the tsunami waves. It also benefited from the fact that the earthquake proceeded more slowly in the northern rupture zone, greatly reducing the energy of the water displacements in that region. Measurements from these satellites may prove invaluable for the understanding of the earthquake and tsunami. Tourists and locals alike scrambled to safety inland and atop tall hotels, recording videos of the surging water that inundated their communities. Anthropologists had initially expected the aboriginal population of the Andaman Islands to be badly affected by the tsunami and even feared the already depopulated Onge tribe could have been wiped out. Also, in the minutes preceding a tsunami strike, the sea often recedes temporarily from the coast, something which was observed on the eastern side of the rupture zone of the earthquake such as around the coastlines of Aceh province, Phuket island, and Khao Lak area in Thailand, Penang island of Malaysia, and the Andaman and Nicobar islands. But this changes drastically as the tsunami approaches shore: Because the wave propagates through the whole water column, when it enters shallower water, it compresses, slows and rises up, packing its energy into less water. There were no tsunami warning systems in the Indian Ocean to detect tsunamis or to warn the general population living around the ocean.
Today, some beaches around the region do have posted signs, and IOTWS and sister programs have worked to educate people about such warning signs. Distance alone was no guarantee of safety, as Somalia was hit harder than Bangladesh despite being much farther away.
Conclusions Although routinely constructed houses and buildings may have been able to survive the earthquake shaking, tsunami waves devastated almost all of them.
based on 114 review